Hyperpigmentation for Face and Neck Treatment
The darkening of an area of a skin due to over production of melanin pigment is called hyperpigmentation. Melanin is a brown color pigment which is responsible for providing color to the skin. Due to hyperactive condition of melanin, production of melanocyte cells increases in the body which darkens the skin. The problem of hyperpigmentation is more common in countries which lie in Asia, Africa and Mediterranean region. These are hotter regions and sun rays fall for longer time as compared to other parts of the earth. Hyperpigmentation can affect any area of the body. It mainly effects areas overexposed to sun which include face, neck and hands.
Types and causes of Hyperpigmentation:
There are many reasons of hyperpigmentation. They may be overexposure to Ultra violet rays of the sun, certain drugs, cosmetic reactions and emotional stress. Other reasons are:
- Addison’s disease: Some diseases like Addison’s disease cause appearance of spots, scars and blemishes on the skin.
- Haemochromatosis: People who suffer from haemochromatosis usually have elevated levels of iron in their blood. This disease causes slate-grey or brown-bronze spots and face, neck and hands.
- Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): In this disease, dark spots occur on the body as a result of inflammatory eruptions such as acne, eczema or any cutaneous injury.
- Malasma: This disease occurs due to imbalance in hormones in the body. Dark spots occur on the face, neck and forearms.
- Drug reactions: Some medicines like anti-retoviral drugs, tricyclic anti-depressants and many others like chloropromazine, minocycline, phenytoin, chloroquine (anti- malarial drug) cause hyperpigmentation. However, the dark spots due to drug reactions can be reduced or eliminated when a person stops taking these medicines. Sometimes, it takes years to eliminate the spots after discontinuing of medicines.
- Argyria: This disease occurs on UV-exposed areas of skin especially forehead, neck and hands. Argyria causes metallic, slate-grey or blue-grey pigmentation of skin.
Prevention Of Hyperpigmentation:
The best way to prevent hyperpigmentation is to apply a good sunscreen of SPF 15 or SPF 30 before going outside in sun. This is necessary to keep oneself away from dark spots and blemishes. Everyone who already suffers from hyperpigmentation should wear sunscreen before going outside to save oneself from exposure of UV rays because any carelessness can result in appearance of more blemishes. Also those who are taking the treatment of hyperpigmentation should use sunscreen so that problem may not further persist and treatment must not proved to be useless.
Laser treatment: This is the gift of modern technology. Many laser treatments are available but none has been established as the standard treatment. However, there are two most commonly followed therapies. They are Q-switched Nd: YAG (1064mm) laser and nonablative fractional resurfacing in conjunction with triple topical therapy. These treatments require a lot of precautionary measures to save oneself from after effects. Laser treatment is expensive and does not suit every one.
Bleaching Creams: Bleaching helps the skin to stop producing melanin. The most important ingredients used in making bleaching creams are Azelaic acid,Koljic acid, Hydroquinone, Vitamin C and E, Licorice root and bearberry. These ingredients are used either alone or in combination to stop over production of melanin pigment in the skin. Hydroquinone does not work well on all types. One must consult a good dermatologist before using bleaching creams.
Chemical peeling: Chemical peeling with glyolic acid or 30 to 50% trichoroecetic acid is good for patients with severe melasma unresponsive to topical bleaching creams.
Physical Exfoliation: The shedding of the top layers of the skin’s surface through physical exfoliation is called microdermabrasion. This treatment rids off darkened and damaged cells of the outer layer of the body revealing new unblemished and clear skin beneath. This treatment should not be used by those who have pimples or scars or blemishes that are raised above the skin’s surface because there is risk of tearing. Ingredients used in physical exfoliation are aluminum oxide crystals, crushed seeds and small beads.
Skin lightening creams: This is a slow process of treating hyperpigmentation but can not be so harmful as laser treatment. Skin lightening creams slow down the production of melanin and remove existing melanin from the skin. The ingredients present in these creams are hydroquinone ,soy milk, calcium, cucumber, kojic acid, azelaic acid or arbutin. Creams containing single or combination of two above given ingredients can be bought. Applying of these creams on pigmented areas on regular basis is recommended to get the positive results. Sunscreen must also be applied to exposed areas of body before going outside in sun so that spots must not reappear.
Homemade remedies: There are many famous home made remedies which can be used to treat hyperpigmentation. Home made remedies are considered as better because they do not cause any side effects and are free of cost. The ingredients used in remedies can be easily available either in the kitchen or nearest grocery shop.
Milk and Honey pack: Take about half cup of milk. Now add about two table spoons of honey to it. Mix both well. Apply this mixture on face, neck, arms and hands. Massage in circulation for 15 -20 minutes. Allow the mask to dry and rinse off with cold water. This not only reduces blemishes but also makes the skin fair.
Oat meal face pack: Take a pack of oatmeal. Grind it into a powder and keep it in a bottle for future use. Now take 3 table spoons of oatmeal powder .Add one table spoon of milk and one table spoon of honey. Mix the ingredients well. Now apply this pack on neck and face. Keep it for 15-20 minutes so that it can dry. Rinse it off with cold water. This face pack helps in attaining beautiful, flawless and blemish free skin.
Almond and milk face pack: Soak about 4-5 almonds in water overnight. Grind them in the morning to make paste of it. Add milk to the paste. Apply this pack on face, neck and other affected areas and leave the mask for 20-30 minutes. Wash it off with cold water. Almonds are a rich source of Vitamin E and are highly useful in curing any kind of skin disorder. Taking 2-3 almonds daily help to get rid of any sort of pigmentation.
Vegetable juice: Vegetable juices are very helpful in improving complexion. Juices of tomato, cucumber, potato can be applied regularly on face, neck and other hyper pigmented areas to lighten the dark patches. Cucumber and potato can also be rubbed on the affected areas instead of using their juices.
Orange peel face pack: Dry the orange peels. Blend it into a powder and keep it in a bottle for future use. Take 2-3 table spoons of orange peel powder. Now add required amounts of raw milk to make it a paste. Add one tea spoon of honey. Apply the pack on your face and neck for 15 minutes and allow it to dry. Wash it off with cold water. Orange peel powder is the best remedy to reduce hyperpigmentation and other skin disorders. This face pack must be used regularly control hyperpigmentation. This will also make your skin soft and clean.
Conclusion: Hyperpigmentation gives an unpleasant look to the skin and makes one lose self-confidence and develop inferiority complex. The above given bleaching cream treatments and homemade remedies can definitely work to get rid of dark patchy spots permanently.